Thursday, August 9, 2007
Brewing coffee is as much of an art as it is a science. The The history of coffee brewing equipment is rich, and methods of brewing are culturally dependent. Of the thousands of coffee machines and coffee brewing devices invented since the advent of coffee consumption, only a few have gained worldwide popularity. The coffee brewing methods discussed below are recommended since they have been found to maximize the extraction of the beneficial flavors of coffee, while minimizing the extraction of bitter coffee compounds and undesirable components.
PROCEDURE of MAKING COFFEE : DIRECTION
The following general rules apply to each coffee making process discussed.
Coffee should be brewed for 4.5-5 minutes using a ratio of 55 grams of ground coffee per liter of filtered water (195-205°F).
It is convenient to use 2 tablespoons of coffee per 6 ounces of filtered water.
Filtered water and spring water are recommended. Tap water imparts off flavors to the coffee and some minerals are essential to coffee flavor.
Distilled water is not recommended for brewing coffee as it lacks the minerals to bring out the natural flavors of the coffee
Thursday, August 2, 2007
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Traditional coffee drying in Boquete, Panamá
Processing of coffee is the method converting the raw fruit of the coffee plant (cherry) into the commodity green coffee. The cherry has the fruit or pulp removed leaving the seed or bean which is then dried. While all green coffee is processed, the method that is used varies and can have a significant effect on the flavor of roasted and brewed coffee
Most of the world's green coffee has gone through some sort of wet processing including most of the premium coffee.
After the Green coffee is picked the coffee is sorted by immersion in water. Bad or unripe fruit will float and the good ripe fruit will sink. The skin of the cherry and some of the pulp is removed by pressing the fruit by machine in water through a screen. The bean will still have a significant amount of the pulp clinging to it that needs to be removed.
In the ferment and wash method of wet processing the remainder of the pulp is removed by breaking down the cellulose by fermenting the beans with microbes for several days and then washing them with large amounts of water. Fermentation can be done with extra water or in "Dry Fermentation" in the fruit's own juices only.
In machine-assisted wet processing fermentation is not used to separate the bean from the remainder of the pulp rather it is scrubbed off by a machine.
After the pulp has been removed what is left is the bean surrounded by two additional layers, the silver skin and the parchment. The beans must be dried to a water content of about 10% before they are stable. Coffee beans can be dried in the sun or by machine but in most cases it is dried in the sun to 12-13% moisture and brought down to 10% by machine. Drying entirely by machine is normally only done where space is at a premium or the humidity is too high for the beans to dry before mildewing. When dried in the sun coffee is most often spread out in rows on large patios where it needs to be raked every six hours to promote even drying and prevent the growth of mildew. Some coffee is dried on large raised tables where the coffee is turned by hand. Drying coffee this way has the advantage of allowing air to circulate better around the beans promoting more even drying but increases cost and labor significantly. The parchment is removed from the bean and what remains is green coffee.
Any wet processing of coffee produces coffee wastewater which can be a pollutant. About 130 liters of fresh waters are used in order to process one kilogramm of quality coffee.
Dry process, also known as unwashed or natural coffee, is the oldest method of processing coffee. The entire cherry after harvest is placed in the sun to dry on tables or in thin layers on patios. It will take between ten days and two weeks for the cherries to completely dry. The cherries need to be raked regularly to prevent mildew while they dry. Once the skin is dry, the pulp and parchment are removed from the bean. While coffee was once all dry processed it is now limited to regions where water or infrastructure for machinery is scarce. The supply of dry processed coffee is very limited, with coffee from the Harrar region of Ethiopia and some areas of Yemen and Brazil being the primary sources.
Semi dry process
Semi dry is a hybrid process in very limited use in Brazil and Sumatara/Sulawesi. The cherry is passed through a screen to remove the skin and some of the pulp like in the wet process but result is dried in the sun and not fermented or scrubbed.
Once the coffee is dried to green coffee it is sorted by hand or machine to remove debris and bad or misshapen beans. The coffee is also often sorted by size and placed into one of several grades.
Some coffee beans are polished to remove the silver skin. This is done to improve the green coffee beans appearance and eliminate a byproduct of roasting called chaff. It is decried by some to be detrimental to the taste by raising the temperature of the bean through friction which changes the chemical makeup of the bean.
green coffee stored in bags
Green coffee is fairly stable (approx. up to 1 year) if stored correctly. Most often it is in a Jute sack kept in a cool, clean, and dry place.
Friday, July 20, 2007
Empat hal yang perlu di perhatikan dalam menikmati Kopi
1.Tingkat ke asaman dari Kopi, Kopi terlalu asam kurang baik dan Kopi tidak ada rasa asam sama sekali juga kurang baik,
2.Aroma dari kopi yang diminum harus Fresh atao tercium oleh hidung kita
3.Mouthfeel adalah rasa Kopi diwaktu berada di mulut kita, rasa asam dan pahit harus seimbang dan guna kan ke pekaan lidah kita untuk mencari rasa rasa yang lain seperti rasa cokelat, buah buahan, caramel, dan lain lain
4.After taste adalah rasa di tenggorokan kita setelah Kopi di minum, harus smooth
nah sekarang teman teman sudah tahu dasar mencicipi Kopi,....coba cari tahu apa Kopi yang kamu minum itu benar benar berkualitas baik,...ok
Thursday, July 19, 2007
The history and development of the beverage that we know as coffee is varied and interesting, involving chance occurrences, political intrigue, and the pursuit of wealth and power.
According to one story, the effect of coffee beans on behavior was noticed by a sheep herder from Caffa Ethopia named Kaldi as he tended his sheep. He noticed that the sheep became hyperactive after eating the red "cherries" from a certain plant when they changed pastures. He tried a few himself, and was soon as overactive as his herd. The story relates that a monk happened by and scolded him for "partaking of the devil's fruit." However the monks soon discovered that this fruit from the shiny green plant could help them stay awake for their prayers.
Another legend gives us the name for coffee or "mocha." An Arabian was banished to the desert with his followers to die of starvation. In desperation, Omar had his friends boil and eat the fruit from an unknown plant. Not only did the broth save the exiles, but their survival was taken as a religious sign by the residents of the nearest town, Mocha. The plant and its beverage were named Mocha to honor this event.
Originally the coffee plant grew naturally in Ethopia, but once transplanted in Arabia was monopolized by them. One early use for coffee would have little appeal today. The Galla tribe from Ethiopia used coffee, but not as a drink. They would wrap the beans in animal fat as their only source of nutrition while on raiding parties. The Turks were the first country to adopt it as a drink, often adding spices such as clove, cinnamon, cardamom and anise to the brew.
Coffee was introduced much later to countries beyond Arabia whose inhabitants believed it to be a delicacy and guarded its secret as if they were top secret military plans. Transportation of the plant out of the Moslem nations was forbidden by the government. The actual spread of coffee was started illegally. One Arab named Baba Budan smuggled beans to some mountains near Mysore, India, and started a farm there. Early in this century, the descendants of those original plants were found still growing fruitfully in the region.
Coffee was believed by some Christians to be the devil's drink. Pope Vincent III heard this and decided to taste it before he banished it. He enjoyed it so much he baptized it, saying "coffee is so delicious it would be a pity to let the infidels have exclusive use of it."
Coffee today is grown and enjoyed worldwide, and is one of the few crops that small farmers in third-world countries can profitably export.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Indonesia is currently the fourth largest producer of coffee in the world. Coffee has a colourful history, and has played an important part in the growth of the country. Indonesia is blessed with an ideal geography for coffee growing. The longitude and latitude of the country means that the island origins are all well suited micro-climates for the growth and production of coffee.
In early days, the prominent coffee under Dutch rule was Arabica. The coffee was introduced to the archipelago via Ceylon (modern day Sri Lanka). The Dutch Colonial Government initially planted coffee around Batavia (Jakarta), and as far south as Sukabumi and Bogor. Coffee plantations were also established in East Java, Central Java, West Java and in parts of Sumatra and Sulawesi. Around the turn of the century the Arabica crops were devastated by Coffee Rust, wiping out the bulk of the Dutch root-stocks. Coffee at the time was also grown in East Indonesia- East Timor and Flores. Both these Islands were originally under Portuguese control- the coffee was also Arabica but from different root stocks. The coffee in Eastern Indonesia was not effected to the same degree by rust, and even today, some coffee in East Timor can be traced back to the 16th and 17th century.
The Dutch responded to rust by importing and planting Liberica coffee. This variety had a short lived popularity and was also affected by disease. The Liberica cherry can still be found through out Java, but is seldom used as a commercial crop in Indonesia. The Liberica coffee bean is much larger than either Arabica or the Robusta cherry- however it shares more in common cupping wise with Robusta
Current status of the industry
Robusta replaced Liberica and is still the stock crop today. It is not the coffee Indonesia is famous for, but makes up some 88% of exports from the country.
Disaster (disease and natural), World War II and the struggle for independence all played a big part in the changes that are seen in Indonesian coffee today. In the early part of the 20th century, the coffee industry was controlled by Dutch plantation owners and the Colonial government. Infrastructure was developed in East and Central Java in particular to make the shipping of commodities such as coffee as easy as possible. Prior to World War Two Central Java in particular had a very strong rail transportation system that brought coffee, sugar, pepper, tea and tobacco out of the province to the port city of Semarang. Coffee in Central Java was primarily Robusta, while the government estates (Kayu Mas, Blewan, Jampit) in East Java were Arabica. The mountain area stretching from Jember in East Java through to the port of Banyuwangi was heavily planted in both Arabica and Robusta. The Robusta growing at lower elevations, while Arabica was farmed- in plantation farming systems- at higher elevations.
After Independence the plantations throughout Indonesia either came under the control of the new government or were abandoned. Today close to 92% of coffee production is in the hands of small farmers or cooperatives.
In January 2007, The World Widlife Fund (WWF) Indonesia reported that land was illegally cleared for coffee farming in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park on Sumatra Island. The protected park is home to endangered tigers, elephants and rhinos, and WWF predicts that these species will be extinct in a decade should the clearing and farming continue. WWF states that the illegal coffee is sold to Western companies such as Nestle and Kraft Foods.
- Center cut
- Bean (endosperm)
- Silver skin (testa, epidermis),
- Parchment (hull, endocarp)
- Pectin layer
- Pulp (mesocarp)
- Outer skin (pericarp, exocarp)
Arabica is the earliest cultivated species of the coffee tree. It grows best in altitudes between 4000 and 6000 feet above sea level. It require special soil conditions with just the right balance of warmth and moisture. It is considered a higher quality bean and produces very flavorful and aromatic coffee. It takes six to nine months to mature.
Because Arabica trees are susceptible to disease, frost, and drought, and fall to the ground soon after they ripen. Hence they must be harvested as soon as they ripen. They require careful labor-intensive cultivation and produce only 1 to 1.5 pounds of beans per year. Hence they are more expensive. The beans are low in caffeine content and high in flavor and aroma.Arabica beans account for about 75% of the beans that are grown around the world.
Robusta grows best in altitudes above sea level and upto 2500 feet. It is maily cultivated in West Africa and Southeast Asia. It is less flavorful and less aromatic. It is more tolerant of the cold and moisture. Robusta beans do not fall to the ground once they ripen, hence it does not need to be harvested immediately. This species is normally purchased as a 'filler' bean for canned coffees to reduce the roasters cost. Robusta has twice the caffeine content of Arabica. In fact, Robusta takes less time to mature, typically half the time needed for Arabica beans, and tend to yield twice as many cherries. It is also low in flavor and aroma, and is less expensive. It is usually found in instant coffee.
Robusta accounts for about 25% of the coffee grown around the world. It's taste is more of an earthy quality.
First known discovery of coffee berries. Legend of goat herder Kaldi of Ethiopia who notices goats are friskier after eating red berries of a local shrub. Experiments with the berries himself and begins to feel happier.
The coffee first trees are cultivated on the Arabian peninsula. Coffee is first roasted and boiled by Arabs making "qahwa" --- a beverage made from plants.
The worlds first coffee shop opens in Constantinople. It is followed by the establishment of two coffee houses in 1554.c 1600Coffee enters Europe through the port of Venice. The first coffeehouse opens in Italy in 1654.
Coffee is introduced to the New World by Captain John Smith, founder of Virginia at Jamestown... Some Canadian historians claim it arrived in previously settled Canada.
The first coffeehouse opens in England. Coffeehouses are called "penny universities" (a penny is charged for admission and a cup of coffee). Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse opens in 1688. It eventually becomes Lloyd's of London, the world's best known insurance company. The word “TIPS” is coined in an English coffee house: A sign reading “To Insure Prompt Service” (TIPS) was place by a cup. Those desiring prompt service and better seating threw a coin into a tin.
The opening of the first Parisian cafe dedicated to serving coffee. In 1713, King Louis XIV is presented with a coffee tree. It is believed that sugar was first used as an additive in his court.
The first coffeehouse opens in Vienna. The Turks, defeated in battle, leave sacks of coffee behind.
The Dutch become the first to transport and cultivate coffee commercially. Coffee is smuggled out of the Arab port of Mocha and transported to Ceylon and East Indies for cultivation.
The first coffeehouse opens in Berlin.
Coffee Plants are introduced in the Americas for cultivation. Gabriel de Clieu, a French naval officer, transports a seedling to Martinique. By 1777, 1920 million coffee plants are cultivated on the island.1727The Brazilian coffee industry gets its start from seedlings smuggled out of Paris.
One of Europe's first coffeehouses, Cafe Greco, opens in Rome. By 1763, Venice has over 2,000 coffee shops.
The prototype of the first espresso machine is created in France.
A process of using natural gas and hot air becomes the most popular method of roasting coffee.
Kaffeeklatsch, afternoon coffee, becomes popular in Germany.
The first commercial espresso machine is manufactured in Italy.
The invention of the worlds first drip coffeemaker. Melitta Bentz makes a filter using blotting paper.
Dr. Ernest Illy develops the first automatic espresso machine.
Nescafé instant coffee is invented by the Nestlé company as it assists the Brazilian government in solving its coffee surplus problem.
Achilles Gaggia perfects the espresso machine with a piston that creates a high pressure extraction to produce a thick layer of crema.
Caffè Carissimi Canada, a network of espresso service providers is formed in Canada, modeled after a visit to Franco Carissimi (roaster and equipment manufacturer) in Bergamo Italy. It becomes the fastest growing network of private and independant super automatic machines providers in Canada.
Coffee is the worlds most popular beverage. More than 400 billion cups are consumed each year. It is a world commodity that is second only to oil.